QCD thermodynamics with dynamical fermions
In this thesis the finite temperature transition between confined and deconfined matter is studied at zero and nonzero quark densities. The findings are relevant for the understanding of the evolution of the early Universe and contemporary and upcoming heavy ion experiments. The results were obtained using large-scale simulations on lattices with various physical extents and lattice spacings, at physical values of the parameters of the theory. First the phase diagram of QCD in the chemical potential-temperature plane is determined for small chemical potentials via a Taylor-expansion technique. Second the equation of state is studied with 2+1 flavors of dynamical quarks. Finally, the equation of state is calculated in pure gauge theory up to extremely high temperatures, where a comparison to perturbation theory is carried out.